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THE CRUSDAES

The Crusades were a series of religious wars between 1096 and 1699. The First Crusade was proclaimed by Pope Urban II in 1095 in support of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I against the Seljuk Turks, and morphed into an armed pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Four Crusader States were established in the Eastern Mediterranean. It was followed by similar initiatives in 1147, 1187, and 1202. Crusades began as initiatives by the Latin Church against Muslim belligerents and later included forays against disobedient Christian rulers, heretics, and Protestants. The Reconquista crusade was proclaimed in 1123 on the Iberian Peninsula, resulting in the fall of the Emirate of Granada in 1492. The Northern Crusades of 1147 brought pagan tribes of Northern Europe under Christian control. 

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