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Aden is a port city and the temporary capital of Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea, east of Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is approximately 800,000 people. Aden's natural harbor lies in the crater of a dormant volcano, which forms a peninsula joined to the mainland. It is home to the oil refinery and tanker port, attracting rich merchants and Indian vessels arriving for trade. Aden’s peculiar location has greatly contributed to its rich history. Before independence in 1970, it had been ruled and administered by the Portuguese, the Ottomans and the British. Among the sites of interest are old churches and museums, as well as natural sites.